The agreement is a protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), adopted at the 1992 Rio de Janeiro Earth Summit, which has not set legally binding restrictions on emissions or enforcement mechanisms. Only parties to the UNFCCC can become parties to the Kyoto Protocol. The Kyoto Protocol was adopted in 1997 at the third meeting of the UNFCCC Conference of Parties (COP 3) in Kyoto (In 2011, Canada, Japan and Russia declared that they would not meet other Kyoto targets.  The Canadian government announced on December 12, 2011, effective December 15, 2012, its possible withdrawal from the Kyoto Protocol, effective December 15, 2012 Canada has committed to reducing its greenhouse gas emissions to 6% below 1990 levels by 2012, but in 2009 emissions were 17% to 190 higher. The Harper government has prioritized oil sands development in Alberta and de-introduced the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. Environment Minister Peter Kent called Canada`s responsibility for “enormous financial sanctions” under the treaty unless he withdrew.   He also suggested that the recently signed Durban Agreement could provide another way forward.  The Harper government has said it will find a “Made in Canada” solution. Canada`s decision was generally not well received by representatives of other ratification countries.
 The weaknesses of Kyoto and the path to the 1992 Paris climate agreement – The UN Conference on Environment and Development is being held in Rio de Janeiro. It is the result of, among other things, the Framework Convention on Climate Change (“FCCC” or “UNFCCC”) and the Kyoto Protocol should not be evaluated solely on the basis of emissions figures, shishlov says: it also helped lay the groundwork for the Paris climate agreement at the end of last year. The agreement not only reduced emissions, but also introduced the Clean Development Mechanism to act on carbon. This meant that countries that did not meet the reduction targets could “buy” the right to additional emissions from households in less polluting countries. They could also be offset by measures to combat climate change in developing countries. Efficiency: Efficiency is one of the key themes of environmental policy and policy analysis. Effective strategies are those where negative external effects and suboptimal outcomes are limited (Shepsle, 2010).