A short sale includes the sale and redemption of borrowed securities. The goal is to sell the securities at a higher price and then buy them back at a lower price. These transactions occur when the borrower believes that the price of the securities is about to fall, which allows him to obtain a profit based on the difference in selling and buying prices. Regardless of the amount of profit, the borrower earns money on the short sale and the fees agreed at the credit intermediation are due at the end of the term of the contract. The agreement is a contract applicable by contract, applicable under the legislation in force, which is often stipulated in the agreement. In payment of the loan, the parties negotiate a declared royalty as an annualized percentage of the value of the borrowed securities. If the agreed form of collateral is cash, the royalty can be declared a “short-term discount”, meaning that the lender earns all interest incurred on the cash collateral and “repays” the borrower an agreed interest rate. Major securities lenders include investment funds, insurance companies, pension plans, exchange-traded funds and other large investment portfolios.  Securities lending is important for short selling in which an investor lends securities to sell them immediately.
The borrower hopes to take advantage of the sale of the security and buy it back later at a lower price. Since ownership has been temporarily transferred to the borrower, the borrower is required to pay any dividends to the lender. During these operations, the lender is compensated in the form of agreed fees and has also repaid the guarantee at the end of the transaction. This allows the lender to improve its returns by receiving these fees. The borrower takes advantage of the possibility of making a profit in the event of a vacancy in the securities. In finance, the lending of securities or the borrowing of shares concerns the granting of securities by one party to another. Securities lending is generally between brokers and/or traders and not between individuals. To conclude the transaction, a securities loan agreement, called a credit agreement, must be concluded. This defines the terms of the loan, including the term, the lender`s fees and the nature of the collateral. Typical securities lending requires clearing brokers who facilitate the transaction between the lending and lending parties. The borrower pays a royalty to the lender for the shares and this fee is divided between the lending party and the clearing house.
In an example of a transaction, a large institutional asset manager with a position in a given stock allows these securities to be borrowed on behalf of one or more clients by a financial intermediary, typically an investment bank, primeur broker or other broker. After the share was loaned, the customer – the short seller – was able to sell it empty. Their goal is to buy back the stock at a lower price and thus make a profit. By selling the borrowed shares, the short seller generates cash which becomes a guarantee paid to the lender. The current value of the collateral would be put on the market on a daily basis and would exceed the value of the loan by at least 2%. NB: 2% is the standard margin rate in the US, while 5% is more common in Europe. Often, a bank acts as a credit intermediary, receives the cash guarantees and invests them until they are returned. Income from reinvested cash guarantees is distributed by paying a discount to the borrower and then dividing the remaining amount between the security holder and the agent bank. . . .