44 GATT Art. XV:2 (adding). The reference to a “special exchange agreement” refers to the situation in which a contracting party of the GATT was not a member of the Fund. Such a member had to conclude the Special Exchange Agreement to reiterate its commitments in order to avoid the chance of exchange rate restrictions that accompany membership of the Fund. See z.B. Gold, Joseph, member and not member of the International Monetary Fund 426 (1974) Google Scholar, John, H. Jackson, World Trade and The Law of GATT 486-91 (1969) Google Scholar. Although such cases are rare today, they remain relevant in the WTO (for example. B Taiwan province, China, as does the Fund). While these specific trade agreements raise important issues in the Fund`s relationship with the WTO, an in-depth discussion of these issues goes beyond the scope of this article. The imf`s role was profoundly altered by exchange rate fluctuations after 1971. It moved to review the economic policy of countries under IMF loan contracts to determine whether a capital shortage is due to economic fluctuations or economic policies.
The IMF also looked at what types of government policies would ensure economic recovery.  A particular concern of the IMF was to prevent financial crises such as those of Mexico in 1982, Brazil in 1987, East Asia in 1997-98 and Russia in 1998 from extending and threatening the entire global financial and monetary system. The challenge was to promote and implement policies that reduced the frequency of crises among emerging countries, particularly in middle-income countries, which are vulnerable to massive capital outflows.  Instead of monitoring only exchange rates, their function has become a control of the macroeconomic performance of Member States. Their role has become much more active because the IMF now manages economic policy and not just exchange rates. “According to the needs of the governments of the richest companies, the IMF, the IMF has allowed crisis countries to borrow to avoid default in their repayments. In the downward spiral of debt, developing countries have had no recourse but to take on new debts to pay off old debts. Before granting them new loans at higher interest rates, the future leaders asked the IMF to intervene with the guarantee of additional repayment and requested a signed agreement with these countries.
The IMF has therefore agreed to resume the flow of the “financial pump”, provided that the countries concerned first use this money to repay banks and other private lenders, while they restructure their economies at the discretion of the IMF: these are the famous conditionalities listed in the structural adjustment programmes. The IMF and its ultra-liberal experts have taken control of the economic policies of sovereign countries. A new form of colonization was thus introduced. It was not even necessary to establish an administrative or military presence; Debt alone has maintained this new form of submission. »  4. If the monetary portfolio of an outgoing member exceeds the amount owed and no agreement is reached on how payments are settled within six months of the date of withdrawal, the former member is required to exchange the excess currency in a freely usable currency.